Engineering Surveys associated with engineering design often require geodetic computations beyond normal civil engineering practice.
Theese surveys are usually based on horizontal and vertical control, which
consists of a series of fixed points located throughout a site whose positions must be
determined on some coordinate system.
defines points on a two dimensional horizontal plane which covers the site.
is the third dimension added to the chosen horizontal datum.
The measurements for the control survey are taken using different types of equipment
depending on the size of the site.
In small sites typically theodolites, and tapes are used to observe horizontal control in
the form of a traverse with levelling providing the vertical control.